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Christmas Island

Listed under Islands in Christmas Island.

  • Photo of Christmas Island
  • Photo of Christmas Island
  • Photo of Christmas Island
  • Photo of Christmas Island
  • Photo of Christmas Island
  • Photo of Christmas Island
  • Photo of Christmas Island
  • Photo of Christmas Island
Photo of Christmas Island
Photo by flickr user angela7dreams
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With a shape like a Scottie dog, Christmas Island lies in the Indian Ocean some 2,600km northwest of Perth, Western Australia. An Australian Territory, its nearest neighbour is Java, Indonesia about 360km away.

Christmas Island has 63% (over 85 sq. km.) of its area declared as national park and holds many species of endemic flora & fauna!

From a birding perspective the island is home to a number of endemic species and sub-species including probably one of the most beautiful birds in the world known here as Golden Bosunbird. This race of White-tailed Tropicbird is found only on the island and fortunately is visible everywhere. Red-tailed Tropicbird or Silver Bosun to give its local name is also here and can be seen from the gardens of a favourite café on the north shore.

Particularly important from a seabird perspective, as indeed are most islands around the world, Christmas Island is the only home of the unique and endangered Abbott's Booby, which nests in the tall emergent trees of the western and southern plateau rainforest. This forest is the only remaining nesting habitat of the surreal Abbott's Booby in the world.

Christmas Island is also home to an endemic frigatebird – Christmas Island Frigatebird now nests in only three small and discrete areas on the island and is deserving of its endangered status! Great Frigatebird is here too, in good numbers while Lesser Frigatebird may be seen occasionally and has recently been found breeding here.

Red-footed Booby and Brown Booby complete the avian booby triumvirate to match the frigatebird trio, while land birds include Linchi Swiftlet, Christmas Island Imperial Pigeon, Emerald Dove, Christmas Island Hawk-Owl, Variable (or Christmas Island) Goshawk, Christmas Island White-eye and Island Thrush. All are island endemics or sub-specific endemics.

White-breasted Waterhen is a recent colonist from Southeast Asia and the island is a veritable twitchers’ paradise with a growing number of avian vagrant visitors each year.

Notable amongst other endemic life is the Red Crab with over 100 million of these vivid red creatures living on the island’s forest floor amongst the leaf litter. It is the most abundant of the land crabs, though massive numbers are only visible in November / December when the spectacular migration to lay eggs and breed takes place. Christmas Island displays tremendous diversity in the crab department with over 21 species including huge Robber Crabs, elegant Blue Crabs and many others easily seen scurrying about on forest and shoreline walks.

Surrounded by coral reef, this remnant volcanic island’s 80-kilometre coastline boasts magnificent cliffs and sheltered bays. Evidence of volcanic origins can be seen at The Dales and Dolly Beach where the basalt rock is exposed, forming the beds of freshwater streams. With virtually no coastal shelf the sea plummets to a depth of about 500 metres within 200 metres of the shore.

Atop the cliffs lies the island plateau; reaching a height of 361 metres, it is dominated by stands of rainforest that sit on mainly limestone and layers of volcanic rock. This is where the Red Crabs spend the majority of their lives, migrating to the ocean shores to breed and release eggs into the sea in one of the greatest wildlife spectacles known. Breeding is usually synchronized island wide and is seemingly linked to the phases of the moon. The eggs are released into the sea at the turn of the high tide during the last quarter of the moon after the onset of the wet season. It’s fortunate there are so many of them as introduced Yellow Crazy Ants are wreaking havoc amongst the population. Studies show the ant has displaced an estimated 15-20 million crabs by occupying their burrows, killing and eating resident crabs, using their burrows as nest sites and just being generally downright nasty! Work continues on the Yellow Crazy Ant issue.

Christmas Island has a tropical equatorial climate with wet and dry seasons. The wet season is from December to April when the island comes under the influence of the northwest monsoons. During the rest of the year, the southeast trade winds bring slightly lower temperatures and humidity with much less rain. Tropical cyclones occasionally pass close to the island during the monsoon season, bringing strong winds, rain and rough seas and the prospect of some excellent avian visitors. The mean annual rainfall is 1,930 millimetres with most of this falling between November and May while February and March are usually the wettest months.

Written by  Alan McBride.

Comments, reviews and questions by other travellers

It's still a tranquil place, most of the detainees are in the camp. The rest of the island is still totally accessible. Best bet is to book a package which includes, hotel, car, flight. Limited places to eat on the island though hopefully this is changing.

Try also a note to and see for packages.

Lisa is keen on birds and eco-touring aspect as well.


2 Replies

Thanks. It's turning out to need a little more planning that we first thought, so help's appreciated.

Lisa will help;-)

Not really, since 2001 the Australian Government has had some form of immigration processing facility at Christmas Island. In 2008, the current permanent facility was established (in its first year it lay empty) and since then the number of arrivals has steadily increased, causing the government to expand the facility to accommodate about 2,200 people(which is very sad from a humanitarian point of view).

I'm pretty sure flights are not operated daily to and from Christmas Island (in the good old days the only way to and from the island was by ship. The last passenger ship to leave Christmas Island was in April 1974 - I know this because I was a passenger on it!). As to whether the increase in detainees has made it harder to visit the island (from flight frequency, available accommodation, car rental etc point of view), I couldn't really say but suggest you visit the experts at the Christmas Island Tourism Association at or write to them at

Easy to read informative article. I understand the crazy ants don't necessarily set out to eat the red crabs per se but attack them (when the crabs cross their nests)with acid stings that ultimately blind the crabs, leading to their deaths from stavation.

I was lucky to be born there and it is truly nature's wonderland. Though I now live in Australia, Christmas Island is my spiritual home.


3 Replies

That's even more exciting and grizzly! Is Christmas Island still a relatively quiet place to visit or does it get lots of tourists?

Yes it is a quiet place to visit from a tourist's perspective. In terms of tourism development the island is very much at an embyonic stage, with eco-tourism being its obvious drawcard.

However, the Australian Government has established a large detention centre there to process asylum seekers and, at present, the centre is struggling to cope with an increasing number of arrivals. This increased level of activity is most likely placing strain on the island's limited infrastucture and services.

Is that a relatively recent thing? Does it make it harder to visit? I've been looking up flights from the mainland and they look limited. Thanks for all your help by the way.

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