Martin Gray

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Member since
3rd January 2008

My career as a photographer of sacred architecture and pilgrimage sites began when I was a young boy. My father was in the US diplomatic service and because of this I was privileged to travel widely around the world. Archaeology and photography were my father's hobbies and my mother was fascinated by classical music and painting, thus from my earliest years I was immersed in the arts and antiquities of foreign cultures. When I was twelve years old our family moved to India for four years. During this period I went on frequent journeys, both alone and in the company of wandering holy men, to the temples, mosques and sacred caves of India, Nepal and Kashmir. Reading widely in the fields of Buddhism and Hinduism, and intrigued with the beauty and mystery of the sacred places, I dreamed of one day producing a guidebook and photographic atlas of the great Asian pilgrimage shrines. After my family's return to the United States I entered the University of Arizona with the intention of studying Mesoamerican archaeology but soon left, drawn back to India by the call of the spiritual quest and the desire to become a mountain hermit in the tradition of Theravada Buddhism. While living in northern India I became a member of a monastic order and for the next ten years, both in India and the west, cultivated a deep practice of meditation.

At the age of twenty-eight I left monastic life behind, returned to the US, and started two travel companies. Within three years these companies were bringing thousands of tourists to the Caribbean and Mexico and I was becoming a very successful businessman. Yet there was an emptiness in my heart and soul for I yearned to do something more aligned with my spiritual practices. My prayers were soon answered. On a journey to South America, visiting the archaeological sites of Easter Island and Machu Picchu, I experienced a powerful reawakening of my interest in ancient sacred places. So strong was this interest that I decided to pursue my earlier ambition of photographing the world's great sacred architecture.

Returning to the US, I sold my business and began a twenty year period of traveling as a wandering pilgrim to over 1000 sacred sites in more than 80 countries around the world. Traveling frequently by bicycle and visiting hundreds of temples, monasteries and sacred mountains, I conducted extensive studies of sacred site mythology, the history of religions and the anthropology of pilgrimage traditions. Along the way, I also conducted a comprehensive photographic documentation of the great holy places.

During my travels, I recognized the sacred places to be repositories of many of the world's greatest artistic and cultural treasures. However, because of their out-of-doors locations and their resulting exposure to industrial pollution, the sacred structures do not receive the protection which paintings, sculptures and other art are given in museums. Viewing this situation, I recognized that my research and travels had a greater purpose than merely my own education or the production of a beautiful photography book. Public attention needed to be drawn to the degraded condition of these wondrous art pieces so that they might be preserved for the benefit and education of future generations.

In an attempt to assist in this education and preservation work I created a multi-projector slide show that communicates both the extraordinary beauty and precarious situation of the sacred sites. During the past fifteen years, I have presented this slide show at museums, universities and conferences around the US, Latin America, Europe and Asia, to more than 125,000 people. Building on the success of these slide shows, I created the Places of Peace and Power web site that has, since its inception in late 1997, received more than 25 million visitors. In 2004 National Geographic published The Geography of Religion, of which I was the principal photographer. In 2007 Sterling published Sacred Earth, a collection of 200 of my color photographs of sacred sites around the world.

Sacred Sites Homepage

Martin Gray's activity

  1. April 2012
  2. Martin Gray reviewed Aphrodisias in Denizli, Turkey

    Located in the rolling hills of southeastern Turkey, the lovely ruins of Aphrodisias contain what was once the preeminent temple of the goddess Aphrodite in Asia Minor. Yet long before the Greek sanctuary of Aphrodite was constructed in the 1st century B…"

  3. September 2010
  4. Martin Gray reviewed Petra in Petra, Jordan

    Situated in mountainous terrain, the ancient city of Petra is an abandoned necropolis of temples and tombs cut into towering cliffs of red sandstone. Primarily known as the capital of the Nabataean culture during the centuries around the time of Christ…"

  5. December 2009
  6. Martin Gray reviewed Basilica di Santa Croce in Florence, Italy

    The Basilica di Santa Croce (Basilica of the Holy Cross) is the principal Franciscan church of Florence, Italy. Situated on the Piazza Santa Croce to the east of the Duomo, it is best known for its Florentine artwork and its tombs of illustrious dead, in…"

  7. November 2009
  8. Martin Gray reviewed Pisa Cathedral in Leghorn, Italy

    Begun in 1093, Pisa Cathedral (Duomo di Pisa) is a masterpiece of Romanesque architecture. Despite its proximity to the eye-catching and tourist-attracting Leaning Tower, the Duomo still dominates the monumental Piazza dei Miracoli in Pisa. The first st…"

  9. October 2009
  10. Martin Gray reviewed La Compañía de Jesús in Cusco, Peru

    Near Cusco Cathedral is the Church of the Society of Jesus (Iglesia La Compañía de Jesús) which rivals the cathedral in grandeur and prominence on the main square (an intentional move by the Jesuits, which did not go over too well). …"

  11. Martin Gray reviewed Museo Inka (Incan Museum) in Cusco, Peru

    The Museo Inka (Incan Museum), also known as the Archaeological Museum of Cusco, contains artifacts that trace Peruvian history from pre-Inca civilizations and Inca culture to the impact of the Conquest and colonial times on these native cultures. The b…"

  12. Martin Gray reviewed Church of Santo Domingo in Cusco, Peru

    The combined sacred sites of Koricancha (also spelled Qoricancha or Qorickancha) and Santo Domingo in Cusco vividly illustrate ancient Andean culture's collision with Western Europe. The temple of one culture sits atop and encloses the other. History T…"

  13. Martin Gray reviewed Musée du Petit-Palais in Avignon, France

    The Musée du Petit-Palais was originally the bishop's palace and it is where the first two Avignon popes lived before the Palais des Papes was constructed. Today, the palace houses the Musée du Petit-Palais, an outstanding collection of 13…"

  14. Martin Gray reviewed Cathédrale Notre-Dame des Doms, Avignon in Avignon, France

    Next to the Palais des Papes in Avignon is the 12th-century Cathédrale Notre-Dame des Doms. The cathedral was first built in a pure Provençal Romanesque style in the 12th century but was soon dwarfed by the extravagant palace that rose besi…"

  15. September 2009
  16. Martin Gray reviewed Almoravid Koubba in Marrakech, Morocco

    The Almoravid Koubba (also called Koubba Ba'adiyn) is the oldest building in Marrakesh and the only Almoravid building remaining in Morocco. The Almoravids (1062-1145) were reformers and monastic-type warriors from the nomadic Sanhaja Berber tribe (in w…"

  17. Martin Gray reviewed Koutoubia Mosque in Marrakech, Morocco

    Construction on the Koutoubia mosque began shortly after the Almohad conquest of Marrakesh, around 1150. Built on the site of an 11th-century Almoravid mosque, it was completed during the reign of Sultan Yacoub el Mansour (1184-99). Its name comes from t…"

  18. Martin Gray reviewed Agia Triada Monastery in Greece

    Made famous by James Bond, Agia Triada (also Ayías Triádhos, Ayia Triada or Aghia Triada; "Holy Trinity") is probably the most dramatically positioned monastery of the Meteora. It is perched atop a slender pinnacle and accessible …"

  19. Martin Gray reviewed Gortyna in Crete, Greece

    Gortyna (also known as Gortyn or Gortys) in southern central Crete was a major Roman city and later became the seat of the first Christian bishop of Crete. Gortyna was the chief city of Crete during the Roman period. Its city walls were nearly 6 miles l…"

  20. Martin Gray reviewed İsa Bey Mosque in Turkey

    The Isabey Mosque in Selçuk (near Ephesus) is a beautiful example of Seljuk Turkish architecture in an atmospheric location. It is the oldest known example of a Turkish mosque with a courtyard. The Isabey Mosque was built in 1375 at the direction…"

  21. Martin Gray reviewed Basilica of St. John, Ephesus in Turkey

    The Basilica of St. John (St. Jean Aniti) was a great church in Ephesus constructed by Emperor Justinian in the 6th century. It stands over the believed burial site of St. John, who is identified as the apostle, evangelist (author of the Fourth Gospel) a…"

  22. Martin Gray reviewed Ephesus Museum in Turkey

    The Ephesus Museum (Efes Müzesi), located near the entrance to the Basilica of St. John in Selçuk, displays excavations from the ancient city of Ephesus. The main highlights are two statues of the Ephesian Artemis, frescoes and mosaics. The …"

  23. Martin Gray reviewed St. Savior: Chora Church in Istanbul, Turkey

    Built in the 11th century and decorated in the 14th, the Church of St. Savior in Chora (formerly the Kariye Camii and now the Kariye Müzesi) in Istanbul contains one of the best-preserved collections of Byzantine mosaics and frescoes anywhere. The…"

  24. Martin Gray reviewed Istanbul Archaeological Museum in Istanbul, Turkey

    The Istanbul Archaeology Museum is housed in three buildings just inside the first court of Topkapi Palace and includes the Museum of the Ancient Orient. The museum has an excellent collection of Greek and Roman artifacts, including finds from Ephesus an…"

  25. August 2009
  26. Martin Gray reviewed Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière in Lyon, France

    The Basilique Notre-Dame de Fourvière sits high atop the Fourvière Hill in Lyon, France. It was built between 1872 and 1876 in the typical Baroque style of the period and offers a magnificent view over the city. Like the Basilique Sacr&eac…"

  27. July 2009
  28. Martin Gray reviewed Mémorial de Caen (Peace Museum) in Normandy, France

    Officially named Le Mémorial de Caen, un musée pour la paix - "The Caen Memorial, a Museum for Peace," the Caen Memorial is regarded as the best World War II museum in France. With over 6,000,000 visitors since it opened, it is th…"

  29. June 2009
  30. Martin Gray reviewed Wat Traimit (Temple of the Golden Buddha) in Bangkok, Thailand

    Wat Traimit (Temple of the Golden Buddha) in Bangkok might not rate a second glance if not for its astonishing Buddha image. Wat Traimit is thought to date from the 13th century. The Golden Buddha image is about 900 years old and is cast in the Sukhot…"

  31. March 2009
  32. Martin Gray reviewed Nantes Cathedral in Nantes, France

    History: Begun in 1434, Nantes' cathedral was dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul. The cathedral wasn't finished until the end of the 19th century, but it remained amazingly architecturally harmonious. After a 1972 fire destroyed the roof, the interior…"

  33. Martin Gray reviewed Tours Cathedral in Tours, France

    The Tours Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Gatien de Tours), dedicated to Saint Gatien, its first bishop, was begun about 1170 to replace the just-started cathedral that burned down in 1166 during the quarrel between Louis VII of France and Henry II of Englan…"

  34. Martin Gray reviewed Kairaouine Mosque in Fes, Morocco

    The Kairaouine Mosque (Djemaa el Kairaouine) in Fes is the second-largest mosque in Morocco (after the new Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca) and gives Al-Azhar in Cairo a run for its money as the world's oldest university. Its minaret dates from 956 and is…"

  35. Martin Gray reviewed Saadian Tombs in Marrakech, Morocco

    The Saadian Tombs in Marrakesh were sealed up for centuries until their rediscovery in 1917. Occupying a quiet enclosure at the kasbah, the tombs are magnificently decorated with colorful tiles, Arabic script and elaborate carvings. The enclosure consi…"

  36. Martin Gray reviewed Old Paphos in Cyprus

    In the ancient Greek world, Palea Paphos was one of the most important pilgrimage centers due to its famous Sanctuary of Aphrodite, the goddess of love and fertility. Today, virtually all that remains is the holy ground itself. The ancient Sanctuary of…"

  37. Martin Gray reviewed Mount Olympus in Greece

    Traditionally regarded as the heavenly abode of the Greek gods and the site of the throne of Zeus, Olympos seems to have originally existed as an idealized mountain that only later came to be associated with a specific peak. The early epics, the Illiad a…"

  38. September 2008
  39. Martin Gray reviewed Masjid al-Nabawi in Medina, Saudi Arabia

    The Prophet's Mosque has a flat paved roof topped with 24 domes on square bases. Holes pierced into the base of each dome illuminate the interior. The roof is also used for prayer during peak times, when the 24 domes slide out on metal tracks to shade a…"

  40. Martin Gray reviewed Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia

    The prayer space is built on a five-meter grid. Its arcade is roofed with square coffers decorated with plaster molding. The columns are clad with marble panels, whereas the arches are covered with artificial stone and plaster moldings. Along the axis li…"

  41. Martin Gray reviewed Delphi in Central Greece, Greece

    Nestled in the forests of sacred Mt. Parnassus are the ruins of Delphi, the supreme oracle site of the ancient Mediterranean. Archaic legends mention a holy place of the earth goddess Gaia, whose shrine was guarded by her daughter, the serpent Python. K…"

  42. May 2008
  43. Martin Gray reviewed Temple of the Inscriptions in Mexico

    Vast, mysterious and enchanting, the ruined city of Palenque is considered to be the most beautifully conceived of the Mayan city-states and one of the loveliest archaeological sites in the world. Its geographic setting is splendid beyond words. Nestled…"

  44. March 2008
  45. Martin Gray reviewed Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Syria

    Located in the heart of the teeming city of Damascus, the Great Mosque is known to be the oldest existing monumental architecture in the Islamic world. For millennia before the birth of Islam however, the city of Damascus was a sacred site of other cultu…"

  46. January 2008
  47. Martin Gray rated Bam

  48. Martin Gray reviewed Mosque of Jam Karan in Qom, Iran

    Besides the highly visited shrines of the Imams, there are two other categories of Islamic pilgrimage sites in Iran. These are imamzadihs, or the tombs of descendants, relatives and close friends of the twelve Imams; and the mausoleums of revered Sufi sa…"

  49. Martin Gray rated Mosque of Jam Karan

  50. Martin Gray reviewed Imam Reza in Mashhad, Iran

    The existence of pilgrimage places, other than the Ka’ba in Mecca, is a controversial subject in Islam. Orthodox Sunni Muslims, following Muhammad’s revelations in the Koran, state that there can be no pilgrimage site other than Mecca in Saudi Arabia. Th…"

  51. Martin Gray rated Imam Reza

  52. Martin Gray rated Konya and the Shrine of Rumi

  53. Martin Gray reviewed Konya and the Shrine of Rumi in Konya, Turkey

    Occupied for nearly 4000 years, the city of Konya is famous for the shrine of the Sufi poet Rumi. Born in 1207 in Khurasan (contemporary Afghanistan), Jalal al-Din Rumi was the son of an Islamic scholar. At the age of 12 he and his family made a pilgrima…"

  54. Martin Gray rated Mt. Ararat

  55. Martin Gray reviewed Mt. Ararat in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey

    Mt. Ararat, the traditional landing place of Noah’s Ark, is located in eastern Turkey near the Armenian and Iranian borders. The summit of Ararat is 16,946 feet (5,165 meters) above sea level. Also called Agri Dagi, Ararat is a dormant volcano and its la…"

  56. Martin Gray rated Mecca

  57. Martin Gray reviewed Mecca in Mecca, Saudi Arabia

    The center of the Islamic world and the birthplace of Prophet Muhammad, Mecca is located in the mountains of central Saudi Arabia. According to legend, when Adam and Eve fell to earth from Paradise, they wandered separately for two hundred years, until G…"

  58. Martin Gray reviewed Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, Israel

    This chapel marks the traditional site of Jesus' crucifixion at Golgotha, or Calvary, and of his burial and resurrection. There is archaeological evidence that Golgatha was once a place of pagan sanctity and it is traditionally claimed that the skull of …"

  59. Martin Gray rated Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre

  60. Martin Gray rated Quarantal and the Holy Grotto of the Temptation of Chri

  61. Martin Gray reviewed Quarantal and the Holy Grotto of the Temptation of Chri in Jerusalem, Israel

    Thirty-six miles to the east of Jerusalem stands the ancient city of Jericho. A few miles northwest of Jericho, the Mount of Temptation is the traditional scene of the temptation of Christ. The Gospel of John omits the story but the other gospels (Mark 1…"

  62. Martin Gray rated Bethlehem

  63. Martin Gray reviewed Bethlehem in Jerusalem, Israel

    South of Jerusalem, Bethlehem is considered the birth place of Jesus according to the Gospels of Mathew and Luke. Various New Testament scholars believe parts of these gospels to be later accretions and assert that Jesus was actually born in Nazareth, hi…"

  64. Martin Gray rated Jerusalem

  65. Martin Gray rated Jebel Haroun

  66. Martin Gray reviewed Jebel Haroun in Petra, Jordan

    The Prophet Aaron was the elder brother of the Prophet Moses and Miriam, and the descendant of the Prophet Abraham through his grandson Jacob. While Moses was both a messenger and a prophet, Aaron was a prophet only. He shared with his brother in mission…"

  67. Martin Gray rated Petra

  68. Martin Gray rated Nemrut Dagi

  69. Martin Gray rated Baalbek

  70. Martin Gray reviewed Haleakala Crater in Hawaii, United States

    Haleakala is the name of the crater that forms the summit of East Maui Volcano. Maui, one of the younger islands in Hawaiian chain, began as two separate volcanoes on the ocean floor about 2.0 million years ago. Over geologic ages the volcanoes erupted, …"

  71. Martin Gray reviewed Mauna Kea in Hawaii, United States

    Mauna Kea, at 13,796 feet, is the tallest mountain in Hawaii and all of the Pacific Ocean. If measured from its base at the ocean’s floor, 16,000 feet down, it is the tallest in the world. Due to its great weight it has also subsided an estimated 3…"

  72. Martin Gray reviewed Sacred Kachina peak and the Red Rocks of Sedona in Southwest Desert, United States

    Situated in northern Arizona at an elevation of 4500 feet, the famous Red Rocks of Sedona are one of the most beautiful natural sites in the United States. Part of the eroding Mogollon Rim of the vast Colorado plateau, Sedona’s canyon walls show nine lay…"

  73. Martin Gray reviewed White Sands in Southwest Desert, United States

    Situated in south-central New Mexico, west of Alamogordo, are the world's largest dune fields of gypsum sand. The brilliant white sand dunes cover an area of nearly 230 square miles and many dunes rise to 60 feet. True sand dunes, as contrasted to beach …"

  74. Martin Gray reviewed Shiprock in Southwest Desert, United States

    Known today most commonly by the name Shiprock, the 1700 foot tall eroded volcanic plume is sacred to the Navaho Indians as Tse Bi dahi, or the Rock with Wings. This name comes from an ancient folk myth that tells how the rock was once a great bird which…"

  75. Martin Gray reviewed San Juan de los Lagos in Mexico

    Located in central Mexico, northeast of the city of Guadalajara, the small town of San Juan de los Lagos is the second most visited pilgrimage shrine in Mexico. Founded by Fray Miguel of Bologna, the town was first called San Juan Mezquititlán Baptist bu…"

  76. Martin Gray reviewed Church of Chalma in Mexico

    Near the city of Cuernavaca is situated the pre-Columbian sacred site of Chalma. Its early history shrouded in myth, Chalma was long visited by pilgrims making offerings to a statue of Ozteotl, the Dark Lord of the Cave. Pilgrims would walk for days thro…"

  77. Martin Gray reviewed The Monastery of Izamal in Mexico

    East of Merida, the capital of Yucatan, is the colonial town of Izamal. In the center of town stands the Monastery of Izamal, containing one of the most venerated Marian statues in all of Mexico. To this statue are attributed thousands of miracles of hea…"

  78. Martin Gray reviewed Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City, Mexico

    The basilica of Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe is the most visited pilgrimage site in the Western Hemisphere. Located on the hill of Tepeyac, and sacred site long before the arrival of Christianity, it had a temple dedicated to Tonantzin, the ‘Mother of the…"

  79. Martin Gray reviewed Toltec Sanctuary of Tollán in Mexico

    The Toltec civilization developed in central Mexico and by 1050 their city of Tollán had become the capital of a large empire. Mentioned in indigenous documents and post-Conquest sources, Tollán was said to be on the hill of Tzatzitepetl, but the ruins w…"

  80. Martin Gray reviewed Mitla in Mexico

    Near the city of Oaxaca, the ruins of Mitla are one of Mexico's most fascinating and enigmatic sacred places. Archaeological excavations indicate that the site was occupied from as early as 900 BC. Mitla's visible structural remains however, date from be…"

  81. Martin Gray reviewed Monte Alban in Oaxaca, Mexico

    High above the city of Oaxaca, the ruins of Monte Alban are the second largest ceremonial site in Mesoamerica, exceeded in size only by Teotihuacan. The first known buildings were constructed around 1000 BC but most of these are now buried beneath later …"

  82. Martin Gray reviewed Mt. Iztaccihuatl and Mt. Popocatepetl in Mexico

    Southeast of Mexico City stand the two great sacred mountains of Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl. In Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs, Popocatepetl means 'Smoking Mountain' and the 17,833 foot volcano, while currently dormant, does frequently emit large…"

  83. Martin Gray reviewed Las Lajas Cathedral in Andean, Colombia

    In the remote mountains of southwestern Columbia, Las Lajas is one of the most enchantingly beautiful pilgrimage shrines in all the world. A scene of fairy tale splendor, the cathedral clings to the sides of a cliff above a swiftly running river in a mou…"

  84. Martin Gray reviewed El Cisne Shrine in Ecuador

    Forty miles from the city of Loja in the mountains of southern Ecuador is the town of El Cisne, the site of a much venerated Marian shrine. The basilica of El Cisne was built in 1742 and modeled after a similar basilica in Harlungenberg, Germany. In 1594…"

  85. Martin Gray reviewed The Church at Qoyllur Rit’i and Mt. Ausungate in Sacred Valley, Peru

    The veneration of high mountains is of great antiquity in the Andes, where certain peaks were considered to be the abodes of deities which controlled the weather and the productivity of crops. Archaeological excavations have revealed more than 50 ceremon…"

  86. Martin Gray reviewed Copacabana and the Basilica of the Virgen de la Candela in Peru

    On the southern shore of Lake Titicaca, the town of Copacabana is widely known for its Christian pilgrimage shrine, the Virgen de la Candelaria, also called the Dark Virgin. Before the Christian use of the site there was an Inca Temple of the Sun, from w…"

  87. Martin Gray reviewed Tiahuanaco in Bolivia

    Once on the coast of sacred Lake Titicaca, but now twelve miles inland, the enigmatic site of Tiahuanaco was the source of the creation myths, the social orders, and the sophisticated preoccupation with astronomy that informed thousands of years of Andea…"

  88. Martin Gray reviewed The Holy Mountains of Ancohuma and Illampu in Bolivia

    Soaring majestically above Lake Titicaca and often cloaked by ethereal mists, are the sacred mountains of Ancohuma (20,957 feet) and Illampu (20,867). Archaeological remains found on the summit of dozens of mountains throughout Peru and Bolivia reveal th…"

  89. Martin Gray reviewed Dogon Binu shrines in Mali

    Scattered across the cliffs of the Bandiagara region of Mali are hundreds of small Dogon villages. The origins of the Dogon are lost in the mists of time and their earlier name, Habe, means stranger or pagan. Scholars believe the tribe to be of ancient E…"

  90. Martin Gray reviewed The Mosque of Djenné in Mali

    The oldest known city in sub-Saharan Africa, Djenné is 220 miles southwest of Timbuktu. Founded by merchants around 800 AD, near the site of an older city dating from 250 BC, Djenné flourished as a trading center between the deserts of Sudan and the trop…"

  91. Martin Gray reviewed Catedral de Avila in Ávila, Spain

    One of the finest remnants of Europe's medieval era, the walled town of Avila was sacred to an ancient Celtiberian culture long before the arrival of the Romans or Christians. Captured by the Arab Moors in 714 AD and recaptured by the Christians in 1088…"

  92. Martin Gray reviewed Canterbury Cathedral in South East England, United Kingdom

    The most famous of England's pilgrimage shrines during the late medieval ages, Canterbury Cathedral marks a pagan sacred place used long before the arrival of Christianity. While a Celtic church was built following the Roman occupation of England in 43 …"

  93. Martin Gray reviewed The Round Towers of Ireland in Tipperary, Ireland

    Soaring high above the plain of Tipperary is the 28 meter round tower of Cashel. While the tower dates from the 11th century, the rock outcrop upon which it stands has fortifications from the early 4th century when it was the stronghold and ceremonial c…"

  94. Martin Gray reviewed The Round Towers of Ireland in Tipperary, Ireland

    The tower of Glendalough is considered by scholars to be the most finely constructed and beautiful tower in all Ireland. Situated in a thickly forested valley, the 30 meter tall tower is built of mica schist with a granite doorway. Glendalough was an an…"